Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 24

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Published Spring 2003

Contents: Silver minerals, fossil store horrors, refractometers, competition.

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 Silver Minerals

Silver, Ag, is known as a coinage metal and has an average crustal abundance of 0.08 ppm. Over 10,000 tonnes are produced annually with Mexico, Russia, USA, Peru and Australia being the foremost current world suppliers. Silver is used commercially in photography, silverware and jewellery, silvering mirrors, high capacity batteries, electronics and chemicals. Silver is found mainly as the native element or in countless sulphides, sulphosalts and in halides. Silver occurs in an array of interesting habits and forms very desirable specimens for collectors. Crude masses, wires, sheets, leaves and plates are all very typical for this mineral. Distinct rough cubic crystals are rarer and can include octahedra and dodecahedra. Twinned parallel arborescent to dentritic habits are also very enticing. Its colour is silver-white but this soon tarnishes grey to black with a metallic lustre. It has a variable specific gravity of around 10.5 and has good malleability. It has a shining white streak with a hackly fracture and a low hardness. The above characteristics and simple chemical tests are useful in identifying silver. It occurs as a primary hydrothermal mineral and as a secondary species in the oxidised portions of mineral deposits. Silver is chiefly associated with acanthite, chlorargyrite, various silver sulphosalts and many other minerals. Silver deposits are known throughout the world in many countries. USA, Canada, Norway (Kongsberg being noted for the best crystallised and wire specimens!), Germany, Czech Republic, Australia, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia and Kazakhstan have all produced fantastic specimens. Silver specimens are usually available at Rock "n" Gem Shows. The greatest number of silver-bearing minerals is found among the sulphides and sulphosalts and they provide an interesting group.

Acanthite, Ag2S, is a monoclinic mineral that forms prismatic crystals. Usually found as a paramorph after the high temperature polymorph in pseudo-cubic or pseudo-octahedral habits to several ems in size. Acanthite is iron-black in colour with a black streak and a high specific gravity of 7.2. It has an uneven fracture and a hardness of 2.0-2.5. The habit, lack of cleavage and chemical tests helps towards its identification. It is a widespread mineral of moderately low-temperature sulphide deposits and in secondary enrichment zones, along with silver, pyrargyrite, proustite, polybasite, stephanite, galena, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, calcite and quartz. Good specimen localities are Freiberg, Schneeberg, Annaberg, Marienberg and St. Andreasberg in Germany; countless sites in Mexico; USA; Cobalt area, Ontario, Canada; Chanarcillo, Atacama, Chile and Jachymov, Czech Republic.

Hessite Ag2Te, can be found as appealing pseudo-cubic crystals to about 1.7 cm. Massive, compact or fine-grained aggregates are commonly encountered. It is lead-grey to steel-grey 111 colour tarnishing to black, and possessing a smooth and even fracture. Hessite frequently occurs in low to moderate-temperature hydrothermal veins and in some massive pyrite deposits. It is associated with calaverite, sylvanite, altaite, petzite, gold, galena, tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite and other minerals. Crystal form and chemical tests aid in the identification of hessite. The best samples are obtained from the Bote mine, Zlatna, Romania; Kalgoolie,Western Australia; Altia Mts, Siberia in the former USSR; California, Arizona, Colorado, USA; and in various localities in Canada.

Stromeyerite, AgCuS, generally occurs as massive or compact dark steel-grey aggregates. Orthorhombic prismatic crystals are discovered infrequently. Its physical properties include a steel-grey streak, metallic lustre, nd a hardness of 2.5 to 3. and a subconchoidal fracture. Stromeyerite is mostly encountered as a secondary accessory mineral in hydrothermal deposits. It also is known as a primary species. Freibergite, bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite and galena often accompany this mineral. Quite a few localities for stromeyerite are known. These include: Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan; Silver King and Magma mines, Arizona, numerous mines in Colorado, USA; Rudelstadt and Kupferberg, Silisia, Poland; Mt Lyell, Tasmania, Australia; and from Cobalt, Ontario and Silver King mine, British Columbia, Canada.

Proustite.AgrAs'Sr, is one of the most desirable minerals to have in any collection due to its beautiful crystals. Great specimens are both difficult and extremely expensive to buy. It forms various hexagonal prismatic crystals to 8 cm in length and can be twinned. Massive to compact aggregates are also found. Proustite is translucent and scarlet-vermilion in colour that darkens with exposure to light. The mineral is brittle with a conchoidal to uneven fracture and a distinct cleavage. It has a low hardness and a specific gravity of 5.5. It has a vermillion streak and an adamantine lustre. It is usually lighter than the next mineral pyrargyrite and chemical tests are useful guides to its identity along with its representative associations. It is found as a late-forming hydrothermal mineral and in oxidised zones, frequently together with silver, arsenic, stephanite, acanthite, tetrahedrite, arsenopyrite, chlorargyrite and barite. Proustite is not uncommon, but only occasionally do localities provide ore or wonderful specimens.
Exceptional crystal groups came from Chanarcillo, Chile; also at Jachymov and Pribram, Czech Republic; Freiberg, Niederschlema and Schneeberg, Germany; from diverse locations in Mexico; Poorman mine, Idaho, USA, and at other sites worldwide. Proustite has occasionally been cut into striking gems, but it is really too soft to wear and also suffers from light damage.

Pyrargyrite, Ag3SbS3, isanother gorgeous silver mineral It crystallises in the hexagonal system with prismatic, hernimorphic crystals that are sometimes twinned. Other habits are massive and granular forms. Pyrargyrite has an amazing deep red colour and is translucent with an adamantine lustre. It also darkens on exposure to light. Other physical properties are a purplish red streak, distinct cleavage, conchoidal to uneven fracture and a hardness of 2.5. Distinguishing features are its crystal habit, the antimony test and its darker hue than proustites. Pyrargyrite and proustite should both be kept out of the light. The mineral is characteristic of late-stage low-temperature primary species in quite a few hydrothermal deposits, and is also found as a secondary mineral. Silver, acanthite, tetrahedrite, other silver sulphosalts, calcite, quartz and dolomite regularly occur with pyrargyrite. Premier specimens are acquired from Colquechaca, Bolivia; Chanarcillo, Chile; Fresnillo, Zacatecas and Guanajuato, Mexico; San Genaro mine, Huancavelica, Peru; St. Andreasberg, Germany and San Carlos mine, Heindelaencina, Spain. Cut stones up to 50 carats have been faceted, but are inclined to be too dark.
The halide class includes: Chlorargyrite, AgCl, bromargyrite, AgBr and iodargyrite, Agi. They are all secondary minerals typically occurring in oxidised portions of silver deposits, commonly in arid climates.
Chlorargyrite is found as attractive modified cubic crystals or more usually as parallel groups, massive, stalactitic, fibrous or as aggregates forming crusts and films. It is colourless, yellowish to grey white when fresh, but turns violet-brown to purple when exposed to light. The mineral possesses a resinous, adamantine to waxy lustre and is translucent to transparent. It is sectile, ductile and very plastic in character. It has a white streak, low hardness and a high specific gravity. Physical characteristics, chemical tests and its mode of occurrence are distinguishing properties. The mineral is associated with silver, cerussite, iodargyrite, atacamite, malachite, jarosite, goethite, and pyromorphite. Fine samples are obtained from many nations. Germany, Czech Republic, England, Russia, USA, Mexico, Chile, Bolivia and Australia are noted sources for chlorargyrite.

Bromargyrite can occur as cubic or cubeoctahedral combinations up to 7 mm across. Ordinarily massive, parallel or subparallel aggregates are found. The mineral is yellowish, greenish brown to bright green in colour and is resinous, adamantine or waxy in lustre. It gives a white to yellowish white streak and has a hardness of 2.5. It is sectile, ductile and very plastic. Bromargyrite possesses a high specific gravity of 6.4 and has an uneven to subconchoidal fracture. The above features and its chemistry aid identification. Normally it occurs together with silver, iodargyrite, smithsonite, wulfenite and various Fe-Mn oxides. Although an uncommon species, it is found at a variety of localities. Good sources include Huelgoat, France; Dernbach and Bad Ems, Germany; in Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho and Colorado, USA; copious sites in Mexico; Broken Hill, Australia and at Chanarcilio, Chile.

Iodargyrite is a mineral with an appealing range of crystals. Prismatic to tabular hexagonal crystals occur with occasional complex pyramidal forms. Lamellar, scaly, globular, rosettes and massive habits also occur. It has a perfect cleavage with a conchoidal fracture and is both sectile and flexible. It has a very low hardness (1.5) and its specific gravity is 5.6. It is usually colourless but becomes yellow on exposure to light. Greenish yellow, brown or grey are other hues commonly encountered. Iodargyrite has a variable lustre ranging from resinous, adamantine to pearly on cleavage. Cleavage and other properties are useful tests for the mineral. Silver, acanthite, chlorargyrite, bromargyrite, cerussite, goethite, vanadinite and descloizite are all closely associated with iodargyrite. It is the rarest of the three silver halides discussed. Delightful examples have been discovered III Mexico, USA, Chile, Australia, Kazakhstan, Germany, Spain and France.

Aurorite, (Mn,Ag,Ca)Mn3073H20, is the only currently recognised silver-bearing mineral which forms an oxide. It sporadically forms in vein lets filling microfractures in calcite. It occurs as small irregular masses and as platy or
scaly grains. The mineral is black and opaque with a low hardness. The specific gravity is estimated to. be about 3.8. Usually associated minerals are todorokite, cryptomelane, pyrolusite, chlorargyrite, silver and quartz. Chemical tests and x-ray diffraction are used in its identification. Aurorite is present at a number oflocations, but is very scarce. Aurora mine and Yucca Mts, Nevada, Ash Peak mine, Sheep Tanks district, Arizona; in the Kawazu mine, Shizuoke Pefecture,]apan are known sites for the material.
The minerals of barium will be discussed in the next issue.
John Betterton

Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 19

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Published Spring 2002

Contents: Journey to Tafilalt series, location where to collect in the UK, moldavite, quiz and news.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 14

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Published Winter 2000


Contents: Working with crystals, zinc minerals, flat lapping, news and reports.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 23

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Published Spring 2003

Contents: Namibia minerals from the Aris quarry phonolite, the caduceus, rock n gemmers in China! Quiz and news.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 18

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Published Winter 2001

Contents: Stone circles, Journey to Tafilalt series, origins of agate, word search, sugilite, shows.

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R.E. Liesegong AND THE ORIGIN OF AGATE
The father and grandfather of Raphael Eduard Liesegang (1869-1947)
were pioneers in the photographic industry.
It is not too surprising that Raphael / followed in their footsteps to continue with the family tradition. However, Liesegang's achievements went much further than an interest in the science of photography and he made major contributions in the fields of physics, chemistry, and bacteriology. This combination of outstanding scientific talents and the family link with the photographic industry meant it was inevitable that he would be involved in the chemistry of gels. Discussions of natural rhythmic patterns had appeared in the scientific literature since 1850.
Liesegang's 30 papers on gel banding resulted in the phenomenon being named after him. By 1913, rhythmic banding had become known as the Liesegang rings. Liesegang rings can develop in rock systems within the molten magma as in the formation of orbicular rhyolite (Fig. 1) or by water percolation through an iron oxide rich sandstone (Fig. 2). Rhythmic banding on a steel plate demonstrates that Liesegang rings are not just limited to the mineral kingdom. The plate was originally a support backing for a quartz clock that has resulted in a beautiful, rhythmic brown pattern radiating from the spindle hole (Fig.3). Faint brown ghosts of etched finger prints can also be observed. A simple electrolytic cell caused the etching with the steel plate and brass spindle as the electrodes and perspiration residues acting as the electrolyte. There is the possibility that the clock battery could have provided an added driving force in the etching process. In some instances Liesegang rings can form as bands on previous deposits. Fig.4 shows the regular deposition and hardening of oil on the observation window of an ion beam thinner: the oil particles have aligned in different ways to produce an interesting rainbow pattern of Liesegang rings.
In 1915, Liesegang published Die Achate where he argued that the major agate patterns could be explained by a rhythmic diffusion mechanism. Gergens first observed spiral, twisting growths being produced in the Chemical Garden 1Il 1859. Liesegang took the experimenration further and added iron (II) sulphate to a sodium silicate solution and produced a moss agate-like growth. The simulated pattern allowed Liesegang to assume that moss agate was the result of iron compounds in solution seeping into a pre-existing silica gel. The thread-like forms are caused by osmosis and density differences between the sodium silicate and the iron silicate: the threads rise within the gel (Figs.5 and 6). Horizontally banded agate is found throughout the world and Liesegang was able to simulate these patterns by leaving concentrated hydrochloric acid on a layer of water glass in order to create rhythmic white disks. If the white-banded gel is then surrounded by ferric chloride, an alternating white and brownbanded gel is produced whose pattern is similar to horizontally banded Brazilian agate (Figs. 7 & 8).
Wall lining agate probably occurs in every country and is found on every continent. This is the most abundant agate type and as sections are similar to a plan view of a castle it is sometimes called fortification agate. Liesegang devised many simple gel experiments to demonstrate how this type of agate could form. He initially observed the fortification effect around tree roots in the Munzenberg sandstones where the rhythmic banding appeared long after the deposition of sand. Liesegang proposed that the banding in sandstone was due to an initial, even distribution of iron oxide that was followed by circulating solutions containing carbon dioxide. These field observations allowed Liesegang to organise experiments where he treated silica gel with iron compounds. He found that under suitable conditions rhythmic banding could be created (Figs.9 & 10). Liesegang accepted that his diffusion theory would not explain every agate but he believed that his theory offered a more likely explanation for agate genesis than the 200 year old Inflow theory. This hypothesis relied upon innumerable separate alternating iron free and iron containing depositions that would eventually fill the gas cavity. Although the patterns do bear a superficial resemblance to agate, interested research workers have never accepted Lisegangs work on agate genesis. The banding produced in gels are so striking that it has not stopped publications on colloid and geochemistry still mentioning Liesegang and the Origin of Agate. There are a number of objections to Liesegang's hypothesis such as the need for agate to form from a pre-existing gel. Furthermore, silica gels are over 90% water and the dehydrating gel results in the collapse of the banding producing a pile of stained and powdered silica gel. Unfortunately, the dehydrated gel does not bear any relationship to agate and Liesegang never did address this problem.

Terry Moxon has been investigating the problems of agate genesis all a part time basis at the Dept of Earth Sciences, Cambridge University for the past 3 years. He would be particularly pleased to hear of any readers who have collected agate from Derbyshire and Cumbria.

Fig.t The sample was purchased as orbicular rhyolite and shows that Liesegang rings can form within the magma. (Scale: the spherulites have a maximum diameter of ~ 4mm.)
Fig.2 Rhythmic banding in. the sandstone at Hunstanton.
Fig.3 A steel plate has been selectively etched. (Scale: the hole in the plate is ~ 1cm in diameter] Courtesy of Jolm Raehurn.
Fig.4 Rhythmic banding as the result of oil and other debris building up on a glass observation window of an ion beam thinner.
Fig.5 The thread-like growths are due to iron silicate growing ill a solution of sodium silicate.
Fig. 6 Purchased as a sample of Indian moss agate.
Fig. 7 Liesegang disc growths of copper chromate. The sample on the right has grown under the influence of all electric current and has produced more regular banding.
Fig. 8 Horizontally banded agate, Isle of Mull. (Scale: across the width 5 cm}. Photograph by Nick Crawford.
Fig.9 Ringed patterns as the resulting from the reaction between a gel containing potassium hexacyalloferrate (II) and added iron (III) chloride. (Scale: the drop is ~ 1cm diameter.)
Fig. 10 (see magazine cover) A fortification agate from the Cheviots. (Scale: the width is about 6 cm). Photograph by Nick Crawford.

 

Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 13

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Contents: Quartzite 2000, copper minerals, The dow and Isis quartz crystals, polarised light, news and reports.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 22

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Published Winter 2002

Contents: Potassium minerals, polishing stones by hand, Namibia first impressions - Sussex Mineral & Lapidary Soc., awards, quiz, news.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 17

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Published Autumn 2001

Contents: Beauty of interference, healing crystals in Feng Shui, Zeolites, news and classifieds.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 12

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Published Summer 2000

Contents: Created to deceive, reflective illusions, copper minerals pt1, books, shows, exhibitions.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 21

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Published Autumn 2002

Contents: Journey to Tafilalt, malachite, conference, market reports, healing crystal, book reviews and news.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 16

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Published Summer 2001

Contents: Mine all Mine DIY stone cutters, concave faceting, Zeolites series, quiz, news and events.

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Concave Faceting


In the summer of 2000, I decided to try concave faceting as a variation of the usual method that relies on flat surfaces.
As I had only seen pictures of concave stones and the machines on which they are cut, it seemed wise to start with a few preliminary experiments. There can be far more variation with curved facets than with the flat variety. A spherical lap, for example, if held in one position while cutting, will cut a 'dimple' shaped facet of its own diameter. While there are possibilities of decorating a stone with such dimples, this shape does not lend itself to producing meet points around the stone. A cylindrical lap is much better in this regard and can be made in different diameters for variation. As a beginner in this field, I have not yet explored other lap shapes.
My first try at concave faceting consisted of cutting DOMET a dimple in the table of an otherwise normal round brilliant. Although dissatisfaction with this stone convinced me that I should move on to cylindrical laps, other people who have seen it seem quite impressed - I suppose that it depends on what one expects. I cut and polished the dimple more or less freehand but, before attempting to cut cylindrical facets, I made an attachment enabling my faceting head to be fitted to my Myford lathe. Matters would be fairly simple if the stone could be held stationary above the rotating lap. This approach would result in transferring the surface variations of the lap to the stone, however, and produce a poor finish. Moving the carriage of the lathe, on which the faceting bead was fixed, back and forth solved this problem but became somewhat tiresome. Despite the fact that the finished stone did not have a high degree of polish, the overall effect was good enough to make me want to carry on.
I usually sit in comfort while faceting and so having to stand up and rock the lathe carriage while cutting a stone was not very appealing. The price of a commercial machine turned me away from that option, leaving little alternative to building my own. Although the cost of parts for my concave faceting attachment was not high, I did invest a fair amount of time in the project without knowing whether I would have a useful accessory when it was completed. The main difference between my concave attachment and the lathe set-up is that the former has a reciprocating spindle/lap, removing the need to move the faceting head back and forth. The whole assembly may be rotated so that facets can be angled with respect to the axis of the stone.
It has taken me some time to work out lap combinations that will give a satisfactory finish on various materials when cutting flat facets. These same combinations would obviously also work when I moved onto concave faceting, wouldn't they? Well, not quite. It has taken quite a lot of experimenting to work out a combination of laps! techniques that produce a good finish.
Until starting to cut stones with concave facets, my faceting consisted mainly of following designs printed out from a computer program called 'GemCad'. Although there is considerable skill required to produce high quality stones by this method, there is also a certain amount of predictability. When moving on to concave faceting, I could not rely on computer assistance because 'GemCad' cannot handle curved surfaces.
Cutting a concave version of a round brilliant presented little difficulty but I was in for a shock when I began cutting angled (to the axis of the stone) facets. The advantage of such facets is that they produce a swirling optical effect that I have not seen in flat faceted stones. Once one becomes accustomed to the controls of a faceting machine, it is relatively straightforward (in principle, anyway) to make adjustments that will correctly position a flat facet. The lack of a preplanned design and greater unpredictability of angled, curved facets makes the situation much more complicated. I am not especially good at working with concepts in 3D and so I was forced into a cut first, cry afterwards approach. Positioning the facets and making them the required length was really difficult. Cutting past a meet point or removing material from the wrong position means starting again, of course.
Considerable practice has helped me come to terms with this type of faceting, however, and I can now place facets more accurately without over cutting (most of the time). I feel sure that passing on the technique to someone else would be much easier than learning myself by trial and error. I have cut stones with concave surfaces on every facet except the table and others with various proportions of flat and concave facets. By using concave girclJe facets, shapes that are unobtainable with the flat variety can be cut. On the downside, the spiky nature of concave girdle facets, especially if there are only a few of them, makes the stones more prone to damage during cutting and setting. Cutting tiny flat facets on the spikes will reduce this problem.
I have kept notes about the angles, index numbers and degree of rotation to the axis of the stone since I began concave faceting. With simple designs, this information is sufficient to enable me to cut a similar stone. When I tried to replicate a complex design, however, I produced a very different stone - good for creativity, bad for consistency. I think that more detailed notes with appropriate sketches would be necessary if accurate reproduction were a requirement - my web site now has some pictures to go with the instructions:
btinternet.com/r-chrisalgar/
Although I have not yet produced many concave faceted stones, I am really pleased with the machine that I built. Every new stone offers the chance to experiment, and flat faceting seems much less complicated when I return to it.
 
Chris Algar

 HEALING WITH CRYSTALS
WEARING CRYSTAL AND GEMSTONE JEWELLERY


Humans have been attracted by the beauty and magic of gemstones for thousands of years. Evidence of people using and wearing gemstone jewellery goes back to the Stone Age.
Malachite, lapis and carnelian were the favourite gems of the Egyptians, the Incas loved gold and emeralds, turquoise and coral are sacred to Native American Indians and Tibetans and have been used a lot in their jewellery as well as for rituals and healing. The favourite gemstone for the Chinese is jade and the Celts used to love flint and smokey quartz.
In many excavations, archeologists find jewellery and other items made from precious and semi-precious gemstones in the graves of the rich, famous and powerful people of the past. Crystals and gemstones have been worn throughout the ages to display power and wealth, but the knowledge about the healing properties of those stones can be traced' back as far as Atlantis and Lernuria.
Today we can witness a re-awakening of mankind towards the healing and transformational qualities of gemstones.
The easiestway to access these qualities is by wearing them as jewellery. Wearing a crystal pendant can energise, heal, balance and protect your energy field all day long. The best position to wear a pendant for good health is in the centre of the body above the thymus gland Gust below the sternum) here it activates the self-healing powers and boosts the immune system.
Stones to improve expression and speech (lapis lazuli, turquoise etc.) are best worn as close to the throat chakra as possible. If you are working on emotional problems or you want to boost your heart chakra, the appropriate pendant should be worn above the heart.
Earrings work best for boosting the top three charkas which are in charge of spiritual wellbeing, vision and expression and promote the interaction of these three energy points. The colours for these charkas are purple, indigo and blue and earrings made from gemstones in those colours have the best impact. This would be, for example, amethyst, tanzanite, sapphire, blue topaz, lapis, turquoise and others. Gemstone rings are traditionally worn as symbols of eternity and union but work well for healing as the energies are carried by the meridians to specific parts of the body.
Arm and wrist bands are used to heal an influence in the half of the body they are worn on. They work specificallywell for pain relief such as rheumatism and arthritis.
People love their jewellery. This relationship is often very intense, deep and intimate. It is most important to find the right piece of jewellery to match the frequency of your energy field and here are a few guidelines of what you have to look out for when choosing the right piece for you:-
The gemstone has to be of good quality and without damage or cracks. If it is a crystal, you should check that the termination is perfect and undamaged.
.:. The setting should be in silver or gold or the two metals combined. Gold promotes a male (yang) energy and symbolises the Sun while silver tunes into the female (yin) energy and relates to the Moon.
.:. The setting should not be flimsyor fragile and should alwaysbe open towards the back so the stone touches the skin when worn. This is also the case for rings.
.:. If there is more than one stone in one piece of jewellery, make sure that the different gems complement each other in their energies and look and feel harmonious.
.:. You should find out exactly what stones there are and the locations where they were found and if possible find out who made the piece of jewellery and whether this person was aware of the healing powers of gemstones.
Whether it is a unique piece or a reproduction, it is most important to find out as much as possible about the piece of jewellery you're choosing as it helps you to connect and bond with it.

Different Stones for Different Purposes

STONES FOR PROTECTION
Black stones generally absorb negative energies and are good for protection. Black tourmaline works very well in absorbing negative energies from computers and electrical appliances.A piece of black tourmaline worn as a pendant will protect the wearer while working on the computer. Black tourmaline is also found growing inside a quartz crystal where the quartz magnifies the protective qualities of the tourmaline and so would work best for this purpose. Other black stones are black obsidian, onyx and jet. While black stones absorb negative energies like a black hole, the blue moonstone and labradorite helps to build up a protective energy field around your body and so keeps unwanted energies out. Quartz crystal does a similar thing by boosting your own energy field and so strengthening it. Amethyst is often used as psychic protection and protection during meditation. Always remember that protective stones need to be cleansed as often as possible.

STONES AGAINST STRESS
Rose Quartz is a stone that is very often used for calming and relaxing as well as for emotional healing and balancing. Again, it works best worn above the heart for that's where most of our emotions are processed. Green stones in general, but especially green tourmaline and moss agate are very good against stress and have a very calming effect.They can be worn or held in the hand as holding or healing stones. Amazonite goes deeper and works on the central nervous system where it helps in more chronic cases of stressand anxiety.Amethyst is very calming for the mind as stress is often created as a result of an overcharge in brain activity.Wearing a piece of amethyst will help you to keep calm and in control during stressful situations at work.

STONES AGAINST ACHES AND PAINS
Malachite and crysocolla are very good stones to draw out aches and pains.They work very well for conditions such as arthritis, aching joints and muscles. This is mainly due to their high' copper content and we have a' very good success rate in wearing them as bracelets or holding them as large tumbled stones and handling them as often as possible.
Sugalite works very well in pain relief especially when it grows together with the black mineral called manganese. This combination of stones works wonders against head and backaches.
Amber has been traditionally used for the healing of open wounds and is also very popular for easing the pain of teething children. In this case a beaded amber necklace would be most effective.
We hope that with these guidelines will make it easier for you to choose your next piece of jewellery and will help you to enjoy crystals and gemstones on a new level.
by Lui Krieg

Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 11

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Published Spring 2000

Volcanic Islands, rockwatch, magic of gemstones, fingerprints of man, news and reports.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 20

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Published Summer 2002

Contents: Aluminium minerals, pebbles from the beach, books, news and reports.

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HEALING CRYSTALS

 Throughout history mankind has been fascinated by the beauty of the mineral kingdom.
This chart describes the healing properties of the most popular crystals to help you access their magical and transformational powers. Enjoy!
AGATE - A form of chalcedony found in many varieties and colours, exhibiting banded layers and unusual patterns. High;y valued in ancient cultures, this is a popular talisman for protection, good fortune and good health. As it connects our intuition with the earth, it is excellent for dowsing and use in earth healing . Promotes self awareness, gives stamina, strength and durability.
AMBER - A fossilised tree resin from pine trees dating back 20 40 million years. It radiates sun and solar energy. Transmutes negative into positive energy, promoting positive thinking and attitudes. A good luck charm for travellers. Activates the solar plexus and root chakra, amber revitalizes mind body and soul and helps to relieve depression. Supports physical healing and detoxification. Indicated for disorders of the adrenals, liver and spleen. Gives pain relief for teething children and aids healing of wounds.
AMETHYST - A form of quartz from a light violet to an amazing deep purple colour. 'The Stone of Meditation and Spiritual Guidance' Amethyst opens the crown and third eye chakra, enhancing the connection to the cosmic forces, spiritual guidance, visionary states and psychic awareness. Promotes a healthy spiritual lifestyle. Brings deep healing sleep, and helps reduce pain, especially headaches. Amethyst is essential for placement in sacred space,meditation areas as well the altar. The Queen of the Healing Stones!
APOPHYLLITE - A member of the zeolite family. Grows in 4-sided pyramid shaped structure, 'The Stone of Joy and Happiness' it opens the crown and the third eye chakra. Highly successful in relieving headaches and migraines. Eases aches and pains. Enhances dreamwork and helps to disperse negative energies from computers, It is a favourite for space clearing in Feng Shui.
AQUAMARINE - A transparent form of beryl ranging from blue to blue-green. 'The Stone of Courage', it boosts the third eye and throat chakra. It gives strength to deal with difficult situations, staying focussed under pressure and recognition of the truth. Fine tunes your spiritual awareness, bringing clearer insight and communications on all levels. Soothes refreshes and calms the central nervous system. Promotes creative expression, and courage in speech.
AZURITE - A light to deep royal blue mineral. 'The Stone of Wisdom and Knowledge'. It promotes deep spiritual insights and enhances psychic work. Azurite helps develop intuition, psychic vision, channelling abilities and access to spiritual guidance. A 'Decision Maker', it promotes decisiveness, self-confidence, self-expression and creativity. A stone of great depth and mystery.
BLUE LACE AGATE - A light blue form of agate displaying beautiful white lacey patterns. Gentle activator of the throat and third eye chakra. 'The Stone for Expanding Consciousness and Awareness'. Helps you maintain a high level of consciousness and promotes qualities of kindness, patience, wisdom and peace. Elevates you to higher levels of spirituality. It calms the mind and nervous system.
BLACK TOURMALINE - One of the best stones for protection and grounding. Absorbs negative energies from electrical appliances, and prevents nightmares. Placed around the home it protects the whole environment from negative energies, and so needs regular cleansing.
CALCITE - Found in a wide range of colours, often displaying beautiful rainbows. Works on different chakras according to the colour. Acts as an energy amplifier. Brings laughter, happiness and humour. Promotes spontaneous action as well as positive thinking. Helps reduce fear, strees and tension.
CARNELIAN - A form of chalcedony, ranging in colour from yellow and orange to red. 'The Stone of Action', it activates the naval and solar plexus chakras and enhances the flow of life force. It supports all forms of activity. It helps to overcome apathy, shifting you into action mode. Increases vitality and activates sexual energy. Recommended for disorders of the liver, gallbladder, kidneys, neuralgia and M.E.
DIAMOND - The rarest, hardest and most precious of all gemstones. 'The Supreme Being' within the mineral kingdom. A Master Healer, it activates the crown chakra and aligns all other chakras. It expands and strengthens your whole energy field, helping you to reach your fullest potential on all levels. The most famous symbols of everlasting love, its energy assists in all relationship situations encouraging trust and constancy.
EMERALD - A member of the beryl family of vibrant green colour, 'The Stone for Lasting Beauty and Relationships'. Opens the heart chakra and attracts harmony and tranquillity. Improves the eyesight and strengthens the heart and the immune system. What a beauty!
FLUORITE - A transparent mineral often found in layers oof different colours. 'The Stone for the Mind', it helps with learning and absorbing new ideas. It brings order to chaos and inspires an expanded view. Attracts harmony and tranquillity. Good against flu, colds and sinus problems.
GARNET - A deep red stone also found in light pinks and rare greens. Activates the Kundalini energy. It fires uo the root chakra, boosting and energising the whole chakra system and giving you extra energy and endurance. 'The Stone of Physical Strength', it enhances love life, sexual drive and promotes good health and vitality.
HAEMATITE - An opaque silvery black stone of heavy weight and metallic lustre. Activates and energies the root chakra. A stone for grounding and centering. Brings into balance your male and female aspects. A high Iron content makes it beneficial for blood disorders. Also used for fever and high temperature.
JADE - An opaque stone ranging from white to dark green. A traditional talisman, a stone for good health, physical strength, fertility and longevity. Jade is also a dream stone - assisting in dreamwork. As a heart chakra activator jade promotes love, courage, wisdom and is often associated with Quan Yin, the goddess of compassion and mercy.
JASPER - A form of chalcedony most commonly coloured orange, brown to red. Jasper is a stone for grounding, protection and all aspects of health. Its 'yang' energy revitalizes and nurtures body and soul. It connects with the energies of the earth, making it ideal for dowsing, to connect to the earth energies and helping you to understand the web of life.
LABRADORITE - OFF grey colour, it displays spectacular flashes of moving colours in blue, red, gold and bronze green. A stone for mystics and psychics. 'The Stone of Destiny' it helps you to find your true path, enhances patience and a knowing of 'right timing'. Also called the Druid Stone. It helps you to access the Merlin energy.
LAPIS LAZULI - A classic deep blue stone with flecks of pyrite. 'The Stone of Self Knowledge and Self -Expression', it stimulates the throat and third eye chakras. It aids psychic ability, spiritual visions and insights. It helps you to overcome depression and to speak up for yourself. Boosts the throat, thymus, and the immune system.
LARIMAR - An extremely rare gem, a form of pectolite. An opaque stone of beautiful blue colour. 'The Atlantis Stone', it connects with the Lemurian and Atlantian knowledge. It's playful, innocent, gentle and intelligent (also named the Dolphin Stone). It activates the tree higher chakras, brings inspiration, imagination and understanding.
  

Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 15

15-rock-n-gem-magazine-big

Published Spring 2001

Contents: Tortoise shell, Reflective illusions, Pleochroism & colour, news and reports.

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Rock n Gem Magazine Issue 10

10-rock-n-gem-magazine

Published Winter 1999

Mineral data source
Frogs and Snails
Just the facts

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